Wellness Assessment Report, 1998

 

Graduates are expected to leave the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point with an understanding of the concept of wellness and the ability to apply it to their personal lifestyle. A more extensive statement can be found in the Curriculum Task Force Report.

 

The Assessment Subcommittee discussed how best to assess wellness. The discussion focused on the importance of assessing the acquisition of knowledge (cognitive) versus the application of knowledge (behavioral). It was noted that it would be difficult to measure wellness knowledge because courses that satisfy the wellness General Degree Requirement cover a variety of topics and do not include a common set of information. A health content knowledge test was developed. Questions were organized around the major health concerns identified in the Curriculum Task Force's wellness statement. After reviewing the test, the subcommittee concluded that students could not be expected to generally do well on the test. Test performance would depend on the particular wellness course (s) taken. Given the apparent problems with measuring the cognitive aspects of wellness, the subcommittee decided to focus on the behavioral component.

 

The Subcommittee reviewed the Lifestyle Assessment Questionnaire (LAQ) developed and distributed by the National Wellness Institute as a possible assessment tool. One of the advantages of using the LAQ is the availability of data for comparison purposes. It also has sub-scales that measure the six dimensions of wellness. One of the disadvantages of the LAQ is that it does not assess the cognitive component of wellness. The subcommittee decided to use the LAQ with the understanding that it would only be assessing the behavioral component of wellness. The cognitive component may be assessed at some future time.

 

Sixty-six seniors completed the LAQ in Sociology 270, Communication 369, Psychology 452, Paper Science 495 and Theatre 452 during the 1998 spring semester. The LAQ was also mailed to seniors and recent graduates in health promotion/wellness. Eleven questionnaires were returned.

        43 are females; males, 34

        73 are white

        58 are single

        55 first enrolled at UWSP as new freshmen

        43 have completed 90-120 credits; 34 have completed over 120 credits

        11 have taken dance classes to satisfy the aerobics/activity component of the wellness GDR; 4 have taken physical education 231; and 41 have taken wellness (A/A) classes

        9 have taken food and nutrition 151 to satisfy the health enhancement component of the wellness GDR; 3 have taken health education classes; 18 have taken health promotion/wellness classes; 5 have taken human development 367; 6 have taken psychology classes; and 8 have taken wellness (HE) classes

        10 are communication majors: physical education, 12: paper science, 12: psychology, 15. The remainder is distributed among 16 different majors.

        69% reported being very satisfied or satisfied with their aerobics/activity course (s).

        56% reported being very satisfied or satisfied with their health enhancement course (s).

        90% rated the LAQ at least adequate as a measure of a person's wellness

 

RESULTS

 

The following table displays LAQ scores for 1998 seniors and comparison groups by LAQ sub-scales (responses to individual questions are attached). Scores for each sub-scale are an average percentage for the group. Each question is scored from 1 (almost never) to 5 (almost always). The maximum score possible is determined by multiplying the total number of questions by 5. The wellness score is determined by dividing the individual score by the maximum possible score and multiplying by 100. Scores can range from 0 to 100 with higher scores representing higher levels of wellness. Because the sample is small and there is a need to preserve as many cases as possible for analysis, missing responses for a question have been replaced with the mean score for that question.

 

 

Mosier Study*(1)

Mosier Study*(2)

Mosier Study*(3)

Assessment

 

1986 Fresh-men

1990 Seniors

1990 Fresh-men

1994 Seniors

1990 Fresh-men

1994 Seniors

1998

Seniors

Physical Exercise

51

65+

42

62+

47

57

64

Nutrition

53

67+

53

71+

55

69

70

Self-Care

56

66+

60

70+

63

70

74

Vehicle Safety

75

85+

80

82

76

80

79

Drug Usage and Awareness

90

93

92

93

88

90

87

Social/Environmental

69

73

67

83+

70

79

80

Emotional Awareness and Acceptance

79

81

82

87

84

85

87

Emotional Management

76

77

75

82+

76

78

82

Intellectual

57

68

58

69+

60

69

76

Occupational

65

81+

72

83+

72

81

84

Spiritual

64

73

66

79

65

76

78

Composite

69

75

70

80+

72

77

80

*Robert Mosier, A Report of the Student Growth and Development Process Over 4 Years of the 1986 Freshman Class (1986-1990) and the 1990 Freshman Class (1990-1994).

+Statistically significant difference (p < .05)

(1). Includes 15 freshmen initially tested in 1986 and re-tested as seniors in 1990.

(2). Includes 14 freshmen initially tested in 1990 and re-tested as seniors in 1994.

(3). Includes 390 freshmen initially tested in 1990 and 47 seniors tested in 1994.

 

With one exception, 1998 seniors scored higher on each sub-scale and overall than the 390 freshmen tested in 1990. The differences in scores range from +3 for vehicle safety and emotional awareness and acceptance to +17 for physical exercise. Their composite score is 8 points higher. The 1998 seniors scored 1 point lower on drug usage and awareness. It should be noted that these are cross sectional data and two different groups of students are being compared. However, the results are consistent with Mosier's finding that UWSP students generally score higher on the LAQ as seniors than as freshmen.


PHYSICAL EXERCISE

 

 

Almost never

Occasionally

Often

Very often

Almost always

N

1.        I exercise vigorously for at least 20 minutes three or more times per week

25.0

18.4

22.4

10.5

23.7

76

2.        I determine my activity level by monitoring my heart rate.

62.3

14.3

5.2

10.4

7.8

77

3.        I stop exercising before I feel exhausted.

14.3

20.8

32.5

15.6

16.9

77

4.        I exercise in a relaxed, calm, and joyful manner.

17.3

17.3

17.3

24.0

24.0

75

5.        I stretch before exercising.

15.8

15.8

15.8

22.4

30.3

76

6.        I stretch after exercising.

21.1

9.2

17.1

30.3

22.4

76

7.        I walk or bike whenever possible.

9.2

11.8

28.9

26.3

23.7

76

8.        I participate in a strenuous activity.

14.7

21.3

14.7

18.7

30.7

75

9.        If I am not in shape, I avoid sporadic strenuous exercise.

25.7

14.9

17.6

24.3

17.6

74

10.     After vigorous exercise, I "cool down" for at least five minutes.

9.2

15.8

17.1

30.3

27.6

76

 

 

NUTRITION

 

 

Almost never

Occasionally

Often

Very often

Almost always

N

11.     When choosing non-vegetable protein, I select lean cuts of meat and low-fat dairy products.

5.3

11.8

13.2

18.4

51.3

76

12.     I maintain an appropriate weight.

8.0

9.3

12.0

25.3

45.3

75

13.     I minimize salt intake.

6.6

21.1

23.7

23.7

25.0

76

14.     I eat fruits and vegetables.

2.6

9.2

21.1

39.5

27.6

76

15.     I eat breakfast.

9.2

10.5

15.8

21.1

43.4

76

16.     I intentionally include fiber in my diet on a daily basis.

18.4

18.4

25.0

22.4

15.8

76

17.     I drink enough fluid to keep my urine light yellow.

2.6

7.9

15.8

38.2

35.5

76

18.     I plan my diet to insure an adequate amount of vitamins and minerals.

14.5

17.1

30.3

25.0

13.2

76

19.     I minimize foods in my diet that contain large amounts of refined flour.

17.1

23.7

30.3

18.4

10.5

76

20.     I minimize my intake of fats and oils.

11.8

19.7

22.4

23.7

22.4

76

21.     I include items from all four basic food groups in my diet each day.

2.6

7.9

25.0

35.5

28.9

76

22.     I choose water as one of the beverages I drink.

5.3

13.2

25.0

17.1

39.5

76

23.     I avoid adding sugar to my foods.

10.5

18.4

22.4

26.3

22.4

76

 

 

 


SELF-CARE

 

 

Almost never

Occasionally

Often

Very often

Almost always

N

24.     I use footgear of good quality.

0.0

1.3

10.4

36.4

51.9

77

25.     I maintain up-to-date immunization records.

16.9

9.1

23.4

18.2

32.5

77

26.     I examine my breasts or testes on a monthly basis.

28.9

10.5

25.0

17.1

18.4

76

27.     I have my breasts or testes examined yearly by a physician.

25.0

19.7

7.9

5.3

42.1

76

28.     I balance the type and amount of food I eat with exercise.

10.5

28.9

11.8

23.7

25.0

76

29.     I minimize my exposure to tobacco smoke.

19.5

9.1

6.5

22.1

42.9

77

30.     When I experience illness, I take necessary steps to correct the problem.

1.3

1.3

7.8

33.8

55.8

77

31.     I engage in activities which keep my blood pressure in a range which minimizes my chances of disease.

6.7

6.7

22.7

25.3

38.7

75

32.     I brush my teeth after eating.

5.2

15.6

24.7

26.0

28.6

77

33.     I floss my teeth after eating.

36.8

25.0

22.4

9.2

6.6

76

34.     My resting pulse is 60 or less.

11.4

17.1

20.0

24.3

27.1

70

35.     I get an adequate amount of sleep.

5.2

10.4

11.7

41.6

31.2

77

36.     If I were to have sex, I would take action to prevent unplanned pregnancy.

1.3

0.0

2.6

10.5

85.5

76

37.     If I were to have sex, I would take action to prevent giving or getting sexually transmitted disease.

0.0

0.0

1.3

14.5

84.2

76

 


VEHICLE SAFETY

 

 

Almost never

Occasionally

Often

Very often

Almost always

N

38.     I do not operate vehicles while I am under the influence of alcohol or other drugs.

2.6

10.5

14.5

23.7

48.7

76

39.     I do not ride with drivers who are under the influence of alcohol or other drugs.

1.3

7.9

21.1

27.6

42.1

76

40.     I stay within the speed limit.

14.3

16.9

26.0

31.2

11.7

77

41.     I practice defensive driving techniques.

0.0

13.0

7.8

29.9

49.4

77

42.     When traffic lights change from green to yellow, I prepare to stop.

3.9

13.2

25.0

26.3

31.6

76

43.     I maintain a safe driving distance between cars.

1.3

2.6

15.6

31.2

49.4

77

44.     Vehicles which I drive are maintained to assure safety.

0.0

5.3

10.5

31.6

52.6

76

45.     I use radial tires.

6.8

0.0

13.7

23.3

56.2

73

46.     When I ride a bicycle or motorcycle, I wear a helmet and have adequate lights/reflectors.

36.0

18.7

18.7

4.0

22.7

75

47.     Children riding in my car are secured in an approved car seat or seat belt.

2.9

1.5

10.3

7.4

77.9

68

48.     I use my seat belt while driving or riding in a vehicle.

5.3

0.0

6.6

13.2

75.0

76

 


DRUG USAGE AND AWARENESS

 

 

Almost never

Occasionally

Often

Very often

Almost always

N

49.     I use prescription drugs and over-the-counter medications only when necessary.

0.0

0.0

3.9

6.6

89.5

76

50.     If I consume alcohol, I limit my consumption.

22.4

21.1

15.8

19.7

21.1

76

51.     I avoid the use of tobacco.

14.5

7.9

6.6

6.6

64.5

76

52.     I limit my consumption of caffeine.

21.1

13.2

21.1

17.1

27.6

76

53.     I avoid the use of marijuana.

6.6

3.9

5.3

7.9

76.3

76

54.     I avoid the use of hallucinogens.

2.6

0.0

3.9

1.3

92.1

76

55.     I avoid the use of stimulants.

1.3

1.3

5.3

6.6

85.5

76

56.     I avoid the use of nonmedically prescribed depressants.

2.6

0.0

3.9

2.6

90.8

76

57.     I avoid using a combination of drugs unless under medical supervision.

2.6

2.6

9.2

5.3

80.3

76

58.     I follow the instructions provided with any drug I take.

1.3

0.0

9.2

9.2

80.3

76

59.     I avoid using drugs obtained from illegal sources.

5.3

2.6

7.9

3.9

80.3

76

60.     I understand the expected effect of drugs I take.

0.0

0.0

3.9

11.8

84.2

76

61.     I consider alternatives to drugs.

2.6

1.3

18.4

21.1

56.6

76

62.     If I experience discomfort from stress, I use relaxation techniques instead of taking drugs.

1.3

6.6

13.2

26.3

52.6

76

63.     I get clear directions for taking medications from my doctor or pharmacist.

0.0

1.3

6.7

9.3

82.7

75

 


SOCIAL/ENVIRONMENTAL

 

 

Almost never

Occasionally

Often

Very often

Almost always

N

64.     I conserve energy at home.

1.3

2.6

17.1

40.8

38.2

76

65.     I consider energy conservation when choosing a mode of transportation.

6.7

14.7

28.0

33.3

17.3

75

66.     My social ties with family are strong.

2.6

2.6

3.9

20.8

70.1

77

67.     I contribute to the feeling of acceptance within my family.

0.0

1.3

3.9

32.5

62.3

77

68.     I develop and maintain strong friendships.

0.0

1.3

7.8

39.0

51.9

77

69.     I do my part to promote a clean environment.

2.6

1.3

17.1

34.2

44.7

76

70.     When I see a safety hazard, I take action.

2.6

2.6

17.1

36.8

40.8

76

71.     I avoid unnecessary radiation.

1.3

1.3

14.5

19.7

63.2

76

72.     I report criminal acts I observe.

6.7

9.3

25.3

26.7

32.0

75

73.     I contribute time or money to community projects.

14.5

19.7

34.2

17.1

14.5

76

74.     I actively seek to become acquainted with individuals in my community.

7.9

17.1

32.9

27.6

14.5

76

75.     I use my creativity in constructive ways.

0.0

3.9

22.1

28.6

45.5

77

76.     My behavior reflects fairness and justice.

0.0

0.0

11.7

37.7

50.6

77

77.     When possible I choose an environment which is free of noise pollution.

3.9

7.8

26.0

20.8

41.6

77

78.     When possible, I choose an environment which is free of air pollution.

2.6

5.2

22.1

20.8

49.4

77

79.     I participate in volunteer activities benefiting others.

10.4

23.4

22.1

26.0

18.2

77

80.     I help others in need.

0.0

2.6

26.0

37.7

33.8

77

81.     I beautify those parts of my environment under my control.

0.0

6.6

25.0

30.3

38.2

76

82.     Because of limited resources, I do my part to conserve.

1.3

2.6

21.1

35.5

39.5

76

83.     I recycle aluminum, glass, and paper products.

1.3

0.0

3.9

15.8

78.9

76

84.     I involve myself with people who support a positive lifestyle.

0.0

1.3

18.4

31.6

48.7

76

 


EMOTIONAL AWARENESS AND ACCEPTANCE

 

 

Almost never

Occasionally

Often

Very often

Almost always

N

85.     I have a good sense of humor.

0.0

1.3

9.2

22.4

67.1

76

86.     I feel positive about myself.

2.6

2.6

14.5

43.4

36.8

76

87.     I feel there is a satisfying amount of excitement in my life.

0.0

6.7

16.0

38.7

38.7

75

88.     My emotional life is stable.

5.3

2.7

12.0

37.3

42.7

75

89.     I am aware of my needs.

1.3

2.6

10.5

28.9

56.6

76

90.     I trust and value my own judgment.

0.0

3.9

11.8

28.9

55.3

76

91.     When I make mistakes, I learn from them.

0.0

2.7

1.3

34.7

61.3

75

92.     I feel comfortable when complimented for jobs well done.

0.0

9.3

5.3

25.3

60.0

75

93.     It is okay for me to cry.

2.7

5.3

20.0

18.7

53.3

75

94.     I have feelings of sensitivity for others

0.0

0.0

12.0

30.7

57.3

75

95.     I feel enthusiastic about life.

1.3

1.3

10.5

36.8

50.0

76

96.     I find it easy to laugh.

1.3

0.0

8.0

17.3

73.3

75

97.     I am able to give love.

0.0

2.7

10.7

24.0

62.7

75

98.     I am able to receive love.

0.0

5.3

12.0

21.3

61.3

75

99.     I enjoy my life.

0.0

5.3

11.8

31.6

51.3

76

100.  I have plenty of energy.

5.3

6.6

14.5

38.2

35.5

76

101.  My sleep is restful.

2.7

8.0

10.7

37.3

41.3

75

102.  I trust others.

1.3

3.9

15.8

46.1

32.9

76

103.  I feel others trust me.

0.0

1.3

5.3

39.5

53.9

76

104.  I accept my sexual desires.

2.7

0.0

4.0

33.3

60.0

75

105.  I understand how I create feelings.

4.0

1.3

21.3

26.7

46.7

75

106.  At times, I can be both strong and sensitive.

0.0

1.3

10.7

37.3

50.7

75

107.  I am aware when I feel angry.

0.0

1.3

3.9

25.0

69.7

76

108.  I accept my anger.

2.7

2.7

6.7

37.3

50.7

75

109.  I am aware when I feel sad.

0.0

1.3

9.3

22.7

66.7

75

110.  I accept my sadness.

2.7

5.3

10.7

29.3

52.0

75

111.  I am aware when I feel happy.

0.0

0.0

2.7

21.3

76.0

75

112.  I accept my happiness.

1.3

0.0

2.7

28.0

68.0

75

113.  I am aware when I feel frightened.

2.7

0.0

6.7

14.7

76.0

75

114.  I accept my feelings of fear.

4.0

2.7

9.3

24.0

60.0

75

115.  I am aware of my feelings about death.

2.7

0.0

6.7

22.7

68.0

75

116.  I accept my feelings about death.

1.3

1.3

12.0

26.7

58.7

75

 


EMOTIONAL MANAGEMENT

 

 

Almost never

Occasionally

Often

Very often

Almost always

N

117.  I share my feelings with those with whom I am close.

1.3

4.0

12.0

30.7

52.0

75

118.  I express my feelings of anger in appropriate ways.

0.0

8.0

17.3

40.0

34.7

75

119.  I express my feelings of sadness in healthy ways.

0.0

9.3

14.7

48.0

28.0

75

120.  I express my feelings of happiness in desirable ways.

0.0

1.3

9.3

36.0

53.3

75

121.  I express my feelings of fear in appropriate ways.

1.4

4.1

14.9

37.8

41.9

74

122.  I compliment myself for a job well done.

4.0

2.7

24.0

32.0

37.3

75

123.  I accept constructive criticism without reacting defensively.

1.3

10.7

14.7

54.7

18.7

75

124.  I set appropriate limits for myself.

1.3

12.0

28.0

33.3

25.3

75

125.  I stay within the limits that I have set.

4.0

9.3

18.7

40.0

28.0

75

126.  I recognize that I can have wide variations of feelings about the same person.

0.0

1.3

6.7

25.3

66.7

75

127.  I am able to develop close, intimate relationships.

0.0

6.7

8.0

26.7

58.7

75

128.  I say "no" without feeling guilty.

2.7

13.3

25.3

36.0

22.7

75

129.  I would feel comfortable seeking professional help to better understand and cope with my feelings.

12.0

12.0

21.3

21.3

33.3

75

130.  I reduce feelings of failure by setting achievable goals.

1.4

13.5

21.6

33.8

29.7

74

131.  I relax my body and mind without using drugs.

0.0

6.7

10.7

21.3

61.3

75

132.  I can be alone without feeling lonely.

0.0

6.7

8.0

41.3

44.0

75

133.  I am able to be spontaneous in expressing my feelings.

1.3

2.7

14.7

38.7

42.7

75

134.  I accept responsibility for my actions.

0.0

1.3

8.0

24.0

66.7

75

135.  I am willing to take the risks that come with making change.

0.0

0.0

14.7

33.3

52.0

75

136.  I manage my feelings to avoid unnecessary suffering.

1.3

4.0

17.3

42.7

34.7

75

137.  I make decisions with a minimum of stress and worry.

4.0

10.7

22.7

37.3

25.3

75

138.  I accept the responsibility for creating my own feelings.

0.0

4.0

16.0

38.7

41.3

75

139.  I can express my feelings about death.

1.3

8.0

17.3

28.0

45.3

75

140.  I recognize grieving as a healthy response to loss.

0.0

2.7

10.7

26.7

60.0

75

 


INTELLECTUAL

 

 

Almost never

Occasionally

Often

Very often

Almost always

N

141.  I read a newspaper daily.

22.4

26.3

26.3

13.2

11.8

76

142.  I read twelve or more books yearly.

14.5

18.4

18.4

21.1

27.6

76

143.  On average, I read one or more national magazines per week.

22.4

22.4

27.6

13.2

14.5

76

144.  When I watch TV, I choose programs with informational/educational value.

2.6

7.9

27.6

39.5

22.4

76

145.  I visit a museum or art show at least three times yearly.

21.3

18.7

20.0

21.3

18.7

75

146.  I attend lectures, workshops, and demonstrations at least times yearly.

6.6

7.9

17.1

25.0

43.4

76

147.  I regularly use some of my time participating in hobbies.

2.6

7.9

15.8

18.4

55.3

76

148.  I read about political/public issues.

7.9

23.7

17.1

26.3

25.0

76

149.  I learn the meaning of new words.

3.9

2.6

23.7

35.5

34.2

76

150.  I engage in some type of writing activity.

9.2

6.6

13.2

19.7

51.3

76

151.  I am interested in understanding the views of others.

0.0

2.6

7.9

28.9

60.5

76

152.  I share ideas, concepts, thoughts, or procedures with others.

0.0

0.0

6.7

30.7

62.7

75

153.  I gather information to enable me to make decisions.

0.0

0.0

10.7

28.0

61.3

75

154.  I listen to radio or TV news.

0.0

6.6

10.5

18.4

64.5

76

155.  I think about ideas different than my own.

0.0

0.0

6.6

31.6

61.8

76

 


OCCUPATIONAL

 

 

Almost never

Occasionally

Often

Very often

Almost always

N

156.  I enjoy my work.

1.3

5.3

17.3

33.3

42.7

75

157.  My work contributes to my personal needs.

2.7

2.7

17.6

32.4

44.6

74

158.  I feel that my job in some way contributes to my well being.

2.7

5.5

16.4

35.6

39.7

73

159.  I cooperate with others in my work.

0.0

1.4

5.4

25.7

67.6

74

160.  I take advantage of opportunities to learn new work-related skills.

0.0

1.4

12.3

21.9

64.4

73

161.  My work is challenging.

5.5

4.1

21.9

28.8

39.7

73

162.  I feel my job responsibilities are consistent with my values.

0.0

6.8

17.8

28.8

46.6

73

163.  I find satisfaction from the work I do.

2.7

2.7

14.9

35.1

44.6

74

164.  I find healthy ways of reducing excessive job-related stress.

2.8

6.9

18.1

40.3

31.9

72

165.  I use recommended health and safety precautions.

2.8

2.8

11.1

26.4

56.9

72

166.  I make recommendations for improving work site health and safety.

2.8

8.3

18.1

29.2

41.7

72

167.  I am satisfied with the degree of freedom I have in my job to exercise independent judgments.

1.4

4.1

13.7

30.1

50.7

73

168.  I am satisfied with the amount of variety in my work.

5.5

2.7

17.8

30.1

43.8

73

169.  I believe I am competent in my job.

0.0

0.0

5.4

36.5

58.1

74

170.  My coworkers and supervisors respect me as a competent individual.

0.0

0.0

5.5

34.2

60.3

73

171.  My communication with others in my work place is enriching for me.

0.0

1.4

16.4

34.2

47.9

73

 


SPIRITUAL

 

 

Almost never

Occasionally

Often

Very often

Almost always

N

172.  I feel good about my spiritual life.

5.5

8.2

17.8

43.8

24.7

73

173.  Prayer, mediation, or quiet personal reflection is/are important part(s) of my life.

9.6

12.3

13.7

35.6

28.8

73

174.  I contemplate my purpose in life.

5.5

5.5

24.7

24.7

39.7

73

175.  I reflect on the meaning of events in my life.

5.5

9.6

15.1

26.0

43.8

73

176.  My values guide my daily life.

4.1

1.4

15.1

30.1

49.3

73

177.  My values and beliefs help me to meet daily challenges.

4.1

5.5

8.2

34.2

47.9

73

178.  I recognize that my spiritual growth is a lifelong process.

9.6

5.5

12.3

20.5

52.1

73

179.  I am concerned about humanitarian issues.

1.4

8.2

15.1

27.4

47.9

73

180.  I enjoy participating in discussions about spiritual values.

6.8

15.1

20.5

23.3

34.2

73

181.  I feel a sense of compassion for others in need.

0.0

1.4

11.0

34.2

53.4

73

182.  I seek spiritual knowledge.

8.2

17.8

19.2

23.3

31.5

73

183.  My spiritual awareness occurs other than at times of crisis.

6.8

12.3

20.5

21.9

38.4

73

184.  I believe in something greater or that I am part of something greater than myself.

8.2

4.1

4.1

19.2

64.4

73

185.  I share my spiritual values.

11.0

5.5

27.4

27.4

28.8

73